But the motions of the will can be known with certitude only by the one willing, in whose power they lie. But God, from the fact of willing Himself as the end, wills other things that are ordered to Him as to the end, as has been proved. [10] The truth of this faith was so strong among men that they named God from the act of understanding. Thus, the creature has what belongs to God and, consequently, is rightly said to be like God. All this would involve the return of the aforementioned difficulties: something would both move and be moved according to the same species of motion; something would be at once in potency and in act; and, furthermore, the whole would not be primarily moving itself, it would move through the motion of a part. [3] To proceed against individual errors, however, is a difficult business, and this for two reasons. Dating from the years 1270-72, these commentaries were written as St. Thomas was also composing the third part of the. Brill 1965 edition, Rose E. Brennan, Elizabeth Collins-Smith, Peter King, Harry Marsh, Marietti 1950 edition, Leonine 1992 edition, E.J. Now, by His simple understanding, in which there is no composition and division, God knows not only the quiddities of things but also enunciations, as has been shown. [3] If, moreover, God is in a genus, either He is in the genus of accident or in that of substance. But God, Who is His own principal object willed, is supremely at rest in Himself, as containing all abundance in Himself. He is, therefore, infinite. [5] Again, the intelligible species is the likeness of something understood. [24] But there is another point to consider. But the most perfect intelligible object is the divine essence, since it is the most perfect and the first truth. [1] From this it is further evident that, although God is absolutely simple, it is not futile for our intellect to form enunciations concerning God in His simplicity by means of composition and division. THAT MANY NAMES SAID OF GOD ARE NOT SYNONYMS Hence, that which is in no way in potency, but is pure act, must be most perfect. Hence, the Platonists themselves, in positing the Ideas, did not posit self-existing Ideas of genera, which are determined to the being of their species through essential differences; rather, they posited self-existing Ideas solely of species, which for their determination need no essential differences. Nothing, therefore, prevents God from knowing evils. THAT NOTHING IS PREDICATED UNIVOCALLY OF GOD AND OTHER THINGS. [5] Furthermore, there is this difference between knowledge and appetite, that knowledge takes place according as the known is in some way in the knower, whereas appetite does not take place in this way, but rather conversely, according as the appetite is related to the appetible thing, which the one pursuing seeks or in which be rests. That an infinite power in a finite magnitude cannot move in time is likewise proved as follows. [3] Again, it is Possible to think that something exists whose non-existence cannot be thought. Its nobility, therefore, forbids that it should know certain of the lowliest among singulars. Appendices to the first three books, based on the authograph, were edited as vols. For example, if we say that God is not an accident, we thereby distinguish Him from all accidents. But in apprehending incomplexes, our intellect does not yet reach its ultimate perfection, because it is still in potency to composition or division. But we have shown that God is absolutely immaterial. The argument runs thus. God’s will, therefore, is His very essence. If, then, God understood something other than Himself as His essential and primary object, His intellectual operation would have its specification and nobility according to something other than God. A habit, therefore, cannot be found in Him. [3] Moreover, in knowing His essence, God knows other things in the same way as an effect is known through a knowledge of the cause. Here, however, we are speaking of substantial being, not accidental being. But one of them is the cause for the other to have an order to the divine goodness. [6] Furthermore, an effect can be pre-known in its cause even before it exists. [3] From these remarks we can infer that, whenever several things are known through one species, they can be known together. A sign of this is the fact that forms are made understood in act by abstraction from matter. [5] Furthermore, just as God is His being, so, as we have shown, He is His knowing. [19] Furthermore, we notice in each genus that multitude proceeds from some unity. [10] It likewise follows that the divine intellect is in potency, since its intelligible objects are not joined to it. [3] Again, everything possessed of quantity is in a certain manner in potency. Therefore, His simplicity does not forbid Him from willing things other than Himself in the concrete or the particular. [6] Again, that which has an accident inhering in it is not whatever it has in itself, since an accident is not part of the essence of the subject. But the form of the divine intellect is the cause of motion and being in other things, since God produces things by His intellect, as will be shown later on. Therefore, there is in Him only one willing. [7] To this judgment, too, the authority of Sacred Scripture bears witness. [8] The seventh way is based on the evil found in some singulars. [3] To proceed against individual errors, however, is a difficult business, and this for two reasons. Giuseppe Ciante (d. 1670),[12] a leading Hebrew expert of his day and professor of theology and philosophy at the College of Saint Thomas in Rome was appointed in 1640 by Pope Urban VIII to the mission of preaching to the Jews of Rome (Predicatore degli Ebrei) in order to promote their conversion. But, if the intellect of such a being can by its power know the singular, which our intellect cannot, all the more will the intellect of God be able to do this. Therefore, that than which nothing is nobler is not a body. In this way, all men would easily be able to have a share in the knowledge of God, and this without uncertainty and error. And because potency belongs to the nature of privation, since privation is a negation whose subject is a being in potency, it follows that it is suitable to our intellect in a certain manner to know privation in so far as it is of a nature to be in potency. But since, as was shown above, His power is infinite, it extends to infinite things. Therefore, all these infinites are moved together while one of them is moved. [6] This can likewise be gathered from the very meaning of the name. There is no difference between reaching a first being that moves himself, as understood by Plato, and reaching a first being that is absolutely unmoved, as understood by Aristotle. If, then, it should happen that a certain body is not moved, that body will consequently not move. Now, the divine essence, which is the intelligible species by which the divine intellect understands, is absolutely identical with God and it is also absolutely identical with His intellect. [3] Moreover, only that which does not enter the definition of a thing seems to be outside its essence or quiddity; for the definition signifies what a thing is. For it is said of God in Job (9:4): “He is wise of heart, and mighty in strength”; and later on (12:16): “With Him is strength and wisdom.” So, too, in the Psalms (138:6): “Your knowledge has become wonderful to me”; and Romans (21:33): “O the depth of the riches of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God.”.


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